chocolate

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Chocolate is a preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds that is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, which may also be used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. The earliest signs of use are associated with Olmec sites (within what would become Mexico’s post-colonial territory) suggesting consumption of chocolate beverages, dating from the 19th century BC. The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs. The English word "chocolate" comes, via Spanish, from the Classical Nahuatl word xocolātl.

The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted. The shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are then ground to cocoa mass, unadulterated chocolate in rough form. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor may also be cooled and processed into its two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Baking chocolate, also called bitter chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions, without any added sugar. Powdered baking cocoa, which contains more fiber than cocoa butter, can be processed with alkali to produce dutch cocoa. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, and sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk, but no cocoa solids.

Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, and many foodstuffs involving chocolate exist, particularly desserts, including cakes, pudding, mousse, chocolate brownies, and chocolate chip cookies. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate. Chocolate bars, either made of solid chocolate or other ingredients coated in chocolate, are eaten as snacks. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes (such as eggs, hearts, coins) are traditional on certain Western holidays, including Christmas, Easter, Valentine's Day, and Hanukkah. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate, and in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao.

Although cocoa originated in the Americas, West African countries, particularly Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, are the leading producers of cocoa in the 21st century, accounting for some 60% of the world cocoa supply.

With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018, and continue to be. International attempts to improve conditions for children were doomed to failure because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand, more intensive farming of cocoa, and continued exploitation of child labor.

Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico, dates chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, to 1900 BC. The residues and the kind of vessel in which they were found indicate the initial use of cacao was not simply as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was likely used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink.

An early Classic-period (460–480 AD) Mayan tomb from the site in Rio Azul had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink, suggests the Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD. Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life. The Maya grew cacao trees in their backyards, and used the cacao seeds the trees produced to make a frothy, bitter drink.

By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture. They associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, who, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans, and identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice. In contrast to the Maya, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chile pepper, allspice, vanilla, and honey.

The Aztecs were unable to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire. Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed "tribute". Cocoa beans were often used as currency. For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost 100 cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans.

The Maya and Aztecs associated cacao with human sacrifice, and chocolate drinks specifically with sacrificial human blood. The Spanish royal chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés described a chocolate drink he had seen in Nicaragua in 1528, mixed with achiote: "because those people are fond of drinking human blood, to make this beverage seem like blood, they add a little achiote, so that it then turns red. ... and part of that foam is left on the lips and around the mouth, and when it is red for having achiote, it seems a horrific thing, because it seems like blood itself."

Until the 16th century, no European had ever heard of the popular drink from the Central American peoples. Christopher Columbus and his son Ferdinand encountered the cacao bean on Columbus's fourth mission to the Americas on 15 August 1502, when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain cacao beans among other goods for trade. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés may have been the first European to encounter it, as the frothy drink was part of the after-dinner routine of Montezuma. José de Acosta, a Spanish Jesuit missionary who lived in Peru and then Mexico in the later 16th century, wrote of its growing influence on the Spaniards:

Loathsome to such as are not acquainted with it, having a scum or froth that is very unpleasant to taste. Yet it is a drink very much esteemed among the Indians, wherewith they feast noble men who pass through their country. The Spaniards, both men, and women, that are accustomed to the country, are very greedy of this Chocolaté. They say they make diverse sorts of it, some hot, some cold, and some temperate, and put therein much of that 'chili'; yea, they make paste thereof, the which they say is good for the stomach and against the catarrh.

While Columbus had taken cacao beans with him back to Spain, chocolate made no impact until Spanish friars introduced it to the Spanish court. After the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, chocolate was imported to Europe. There, it quickly became a court favorite. It was still served as a beverage, but the Spanish added sugar, as well as honey (the original sweetener used by the Aztecs for chocolate), to counteract the natural bitterness. Vanilla, another indigenous American introduction, was also a popular additive, with pepper and other spices sometimes used to give the illusion of a more potent vanilla flavor. Unfortunately, these spices tended to unsettle the European constitution; the Encyclopédie states, "The pleasant scent and sublime taste it imparts to chocolate have made it highly recommended; but a long experience having shown that it could potentially upset one's stomach", which is why chocolate without vanilla was sometimes referred to as "healthy chocolate". By 1602, chocolate had made its way from Spain to Austria. By 1662, Pope Alexander VII had declared that religious fasts were not broken by consuming chocolate drinks. Within about a hundred years, chocolate established a foothold throughout Europe.

The new craze for chocolate brought with it a thriving slave market, as between the early 1600s and late 1800s, the laborious and slow processing of the cacao bean was manual. Cacao plantations spread, as the English, Dutch, and French colonized and planted. With the depletion of Mesoamerican workers, largely to disease, cacao production was often the work of poor wage laborers and African slaves. Wind-powered and horse-drawn mills were used to speed production, augmenting human labor. Heating the working areas of the table-mill, an innovation that emerged in France in 1732, also assisted in extraction.

New processes that sped the production of chocolate emerged early in the Industrial Revolution. In 1815, Dutch chemist Coenraad van Houten introduced alkaline salts to chocolate, which reduced its bitterness. A few years thereafter, in 1828, he created a press to remove about half the natural fat (cocoa butter or cacao butter) from chocolate liquor, which made chocolate both cheaper to produce and more consistent in quality. This innovation introduced the modern era of chocolate.

Known as "Dutch cocoa", this machine-pressed chocolate was instrumental in the transformation of chocolate to its solid form when, in 1847, English chocolatier Joseph Fry discovered a way to make chocolate moldable when he mixed the ingredients of cocoa powder and sugar with melted cocoa butter. Subsequently, his chocolate factory, Fry's of Bristol, England, began mass-producing chocolate bars, Fry's Chocolate Cream, launched in 1866, and they became very popular. Milk had sometimes been used as an addition to chocolate beverages since the mid-17th century, but in 1875 Swiss chocolatier Daniel Peter invented milk chocolate by mixing a powdered milk developed by Henri Nestlé with the liquor. In 1879, the texture and taste of chocolate was further improved when Rudolphe Lindt invented the conching machine.

Besides Nestlé, several notable chocolate companies had their start in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rowntree's of York set up and began producing chocolate in 1862, after buying out the Tuke family business. Cadbury was manufacturing boxed chocolates in England by 1868. Manufacturing their first Easter egg in 1875, Cadbury created the modern chocolate Easter egg after developing a pure cocoa butter that could easily be molded into smooth shapes. In 1893, Milton S. Hershey purchased chocolate processing equipment at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and soon began the career of Hershey's chocolates with chocolate-coated caramels.

The Baker Chocolate Company, which makes Baker's Chocolate, is the oldest producer of chocolate in the United States. In 1765 Dr. James Baker and John Hannon founded the company in Boston. Using cocoa beans from the West Indies, the pair built their chocolate business, which is still in operation.

White chocolate was first introduced to the U.S. in 1946 by Frederick E. Hebert of Hebert Candies in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, near Boston, after he had tasted "white coat" candies while traveling in Europe.

Cacao, pronounced by the Olmecs as kakawa, dates to 1000 BC or earlier. The word "chocolate" entered the English language from Spanish in about 1600. The word entered Spanish from the word xocolātl in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. The origin of the Nahuatl word is uncertain, as it does not appear in any early Nahuatl source, where the word for chocolate drink is cacahuatl, "cacao water". It is possible that the Spaniards coined the word (perhaps in order to avoid caca, a vulgar Spanish word for "faeces") by combining the Yucatec Mayan word chocol, "hot", with the Nahuatl word atl, "water". Another proposed etymology derives it from the word chicolatl, meaning "beaten drink", which may derive from the word for the frothing stick, chicoli. The term "chocolatier", for a chocolate confection maker, is attested from 1888.

Several types of chocolate can be distinguished. Pure, unsweetened chocolate, often called "baking chocolate", contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, which combines chocolate with sugar.

Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that also contains milk powder or condensed milk. In the UK and Ireland, milk chocolate must contain a minimum of 20% total dry cocoa solids; in the rest of the European Union, the minimum is 25%.

White chocolate, although similar in texture to that of milk and dark chocolate, does not contain any cocoa solids that impart a dark color. In 2002, the US Food and Drug Administration established a standard for white chocolate as the "common or usual name of products made from cacao fat (i.e., cocoa butter), milk solids, nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and other safe and suitable ingredients, but containing no nonfat cacao solids".

Dark chocolate is produced by adding fat and sugar to the cacao mixture. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration calls this "sweet chocolate", and requires a 15% concentration of chocolate liquor. European rules specify a minimum of 35% cocoa solids. A higher amount of cocoa solids indicates more bitterness. Semisweet chocolate is dark chocolate with low sugar content. Bittersweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which some sugar (typically a third), more cocoa butter and vanilla are added. It has less sugar and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable in baking. It is also known to last for two years if stored properly. As of 2017, there is no high-quality evidence that dark chocolate affects blood pressure significantly or provides other health benefits.

Unsweetened chocolate is pure chocolate liquor, also known as bitter or baking chocolate. It is unadulterated chocolate: the pure, ground, roasted chocolate beans impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor. It is typically used in baking or other products to which sugar and other ingredients are added. Raw chocolate, often referred to as raw cacao, is always dark and a minimum of 75% cacao.

Poorly tempered or untempered chocolate may have whitish spots on the dark chocolate part, called chocolate bloom; it is an indication that sugar or fat has separated due to poor storage. It is not toxic and can be safely consumed.

Roughly two-thirds of the entire world's cocoa is produced in West Africa, with 43% sourced from Côte d'Ivoire, where, as of 2007, child labor is a common practice to obtain the product. According to the World Cocoa Foundation, in 2007 some 50 million people around the world depended on cocoa as a source of livelihood. As of 2007 in the UK, most chocolatiers purchase their chocolate from them, to melt, mold and package to their own design. According to the WCF's 2012 report, the Ivory Coast is the largest producer of cocoa in the world. The two main jobs associated with creating chocolate candy are chocolate makers and chocolatiers. Chocolate makers use harvested cacao beans and other ingredients to produce couverture chocolate (covering). Chocolatiers use the finished couverture to make chocolate candies (bars, truffles, etc.).

Production costs can be decreased by reducing cocoa solids content or by substituting cocoa butter with another fat. Cocoa growers object to allowing the resulting food to be called "chocolate", due to the risk of lower demand for their crops.

The sequencing in 2010 of the genome of the cacao tree may allow yields to be improved. Due to concerns about global warming effects on lowland climate in the narrow band of latitudes where cacao is grown (20 degrees north and south of the equator), the commercial company Mars, Incorporated and the University of California, Berkeley are conducting genomic research in 2017–18 to improve the survivability of cacao plants in hot climates.

Chocolate is made from cocoa beans, the dried and fermented seeds of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao), a small, 4–8 m tall (15–26 ft tall) evergreen tree native to the deep tropical region of the Americas. Recent genetic studies suggest the most common genotype of the plant originated in the Amazon basin and was gradually transported by humans throughout South and Central America. Early forms of another genotype have also been found in what is now Venezuela. The scientific name, Theobroma, means "food of the gods". The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (6–12 in) long and 8–10 cm (3–4 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighing about 500 g (1.1 lb) when ripe.

Cacao trees are small, understory trees that need rich, well-drained soils. They naturally grow within 20° of either side of the equator because they need about 2000 mm of rainfall a year, and temperatures in the range of 21 to 32 °C (70 to 90 °F). Cacao trees cannot tolerate a temperature lower than 15 °C (59 °F).

The three main varieties of cacao beans used in chocolate are criollo, forastero, and trinitario.

Representing only 5% of all cocoa beans grown as of 2008, criollo is the rarest and most expensive cocoa on the market, and is native to Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern tier of South American states. The genetic purity of cocoas sold today as criollo is disputed, as most populations have been exposed to the genetic influence of other varieties.

Criollos are particularly difficult to grow, as they are vulnerable to a variety of environmental threats and produce low yields of cocoa per tree. The flavor of criollo is described as delicate yet complex, low in classic chocolate flavor, but rich in "secondary" notes of long duration.

The most commonly grown bean is forastero, a large group of wild and cultivated cacaos, most likely native to the Amazon basin. The African cocoa crop is entirely made up of forastero. They are significantly hardier and of higher yield than criollo. The source of most chocolate marketed, forastero cocoas are typically strong in classic "chocolate" flavor, but have a short duration and are unsupported by secondary flavors, producing "quite bland" chocolate.

Trinitario is a natural hybrid of criollo and forastero. Trinitario originated in Trinidad after an introduction of forastero to the local criollo crop. Nearly all cacao produced over the past five decades is of the forastero or lower-grade trinitario varieties.

Cacao pods are harvested by cutting them from the tree using a machete, or by knocking them off the tree using a stick. The beans with their surrounding pulp are removed from the pods and placed in piles or bins, allowing access to micro-organisms so fermentation of the pectin-containing material can begin. Yeasts produce ethanol, lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid, and acetic acid bacteria produce acetic acid. The fermentation process, which takes up to seven days, also produces several flavor precursors, eventually resulting in the familiar chocolate taste.

It is important to harvest the pods when they are fully ripe, because if the pod is unripe, the beans will have a low cocoa butter content, or sugars in the white pulp will be insufficient for fermentation, resulting in a weak flavor. After fermentation, the beans must be quickly dried to prevent mold growth. Climate and weather permitting, this is done by spreading the beans out in the sun from five to seven days.

The dried beans are then transported to a chocolate manufacturing facility. The beans are cleaned (removing twigs, stones, and other debris), roasted, and graded. Next, the shell of each bean is removed to extract the nib. Finally, the nibs are ground and liquefied, resulting in pure chocolate in fluid form: chocolate liquor. The liquor can be further processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter.

Chocolate liquor is blended with the cocoa butter in varying quantities to make different types of chocolate or couverture. The basic blends of ingredients for the various types of chocolate (in order of highest quantity of cocoa liquor first), are:

Usually, an emulsifying agent, such as soy lecithin, is added, though a few manufacturers prefer to exclude this ingredient for purity reasons and to remain GMO-free, sometimes at the cost of a perfectly smooth texture. Some manufacturers are now using PGPR, an artificial emulsifier derived from castor oil that allows them to reduce the amount of cocoa butter while maintaining the same mouthfeel.

The texture is also heavily influenced by processing, specifically conching (see below). The more expensive chocolate tends to be processed longer and thus has a smoother texture and mouthfeel, regardless of whether emulsifying agents are added.

Different manufacturers develop their own "signature" blends based on the above formulas, but varying proportions of the different constituents are used. The finest, plain dark chocolate couverture contains at least 70% cocoa (both solids and butter), whereas milk chocolate usually contains up to 50%. High-quality white chocolate couverture contains only about 35% cocoa butter.

Producers of high-quality, small-batch chocolate argue that mass production produces bad-quality chocolate. Some mass-produced chocolate contains much less cocoa (as low as 7% in many cases), and fats other than cocoa butter. Vegetable oils and artificial vanilla flavor are often used in cheaper chocolate to mask poorly fermented and/or roasted beans.

In 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association in the United States, whose members include Hershey, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, lobbied the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to change the legal definition of chocolate to let them substitute partially hydrogenated vegetable oils for cocoa butter, in addition to using artificial sweeteners and milk substitutes. Currently, the FDA does not allow a product to be referred to as "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients.

In the EU a product can be sold as chocolate if it contains up to 5% vegetable oil, and must be labeled as "family milk chocolate" rather than "milk chocolate" if it contains 20% milk.

According to Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, a "chocolate product" is a food product that is sourced from at least one "cocoa product" and contains at least one of the following: "chocolate, bittersweet chocolate, semi-sweet chocolate, dark chocolate, sweet chocolate, milk chocolate, or white chocolate". A "cocoa product" is defined as a food product that is sourced from cocoa beans and contains "cocoa nibs, cocoa liquor, cocoa mass, unsweetened chocolate, bitter chocolate, chocolate liquor, cocoa, low-fat cocoa, cocoa powder, or low-fat cocoa powder".

The penultimate process is called conching. A conche is a container filled with metal beads, which act as grinders. The refined and blended chocolate mass is kept in a liquid state by frictional heat. Chocolate before conching has an uneven and gritty texture. The conching process produces cocoa and sugar particles smaller than the tongue can detect (typically around 20 μm) and reduces rough edges, hence the smooth feel in the mouth. The length of the conching process determines the final smoothness and quality of the chocolate. High-quality chocolate is conched for about 72 hours, and lesser grades about four to six hours. After the process is complete, the chocolate mass is stored in tanks heated to about 45 to 50 °C (113 to 122 °F) until final processing.

The final process is called tempering. Uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size, some or all large enough to be seen with the naked eye. This causes the surface of the chocolate to appear mottled and matte, and causes the chocolate to crumble rather than snap when broken. The uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed chocolate are the results of consistently small cocoa butter crystals produced by the tempering process.

The fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in six different forms (polymorphous crystallization). The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the best form is present. The six different crystal forms have different properties.

As a solid piece of chocolate, the cocoa butter fat particles are in a crystalline rigid structure that gives the chocolate its solid appearance. Once heated, the crystals of the polymorphic cocoa butter can break apart from the rigid structure and allow the chocolate to obtain a more fluid consistency as the temperature increases – the melting process. When the heat is removed, the cocoa butter crystals become rigid again and come closer together, allowing the chocolate to solidify.

The temperature in which the crystals obtain enough energy to break apart from their rigid conformation would depend on the milk fat content in the chocolate and the shape of the fat molecules, as well as the form of the cocoa butterfat. Chocolate with a higher fat content will melt at a lower temperature.

Making chocolate considered "good" is about forming as many type V crystals as possible. This provides the best appearance and texture and creates the most stable crystals, so the texture and appearance will not degrade over time. To accomplish this, the temperature is carefully manipulated during the crystallization.

Generally, the chocolate is first heated to 45 °C (113 °F) to melt all six forms of crystals. Next, the chocolate is cooled to about 27 °C (81 °F), which will allow crystal types IV and V to form. At this temperature, the chocolate is agitated to create many small crystal "seeds" which will serve as nuclei to create small crystals in the chocolate. The chocolate is then heated to about 31 °C (88 °F) to eliminate any type IV crystals, leaving just type V. After this point, any excessive heating of the chocolate will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated. Other methods of chocolate tempering are used as well. The most common variant is introducing already tempered, solid "seed" chocolate. The temper of chocolate can be measured with a chocolate temper meter to ensure accuracy and consistency. A sample cup is filled with the chocolate and placed in the unit which then displays or prints the results.

Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are:

Chocolate tempering machines (or temperers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered chocolate. In particular, continuous tempering machines are used in large volume applications. Various methods and apparatuses for continuous flow tempering have been described by Aasted, Sollich and Buhler, three manufacturers of commercial chocolate equipment, with a focus now on energy efficiency. In general, molten chocolate coming in at 40–50 °C is cooled in heat exchangers to crystallization temperates of about 26–30 °C, passed through a tempering column consisting of spinning plates to induce shear, then warmed slightly to re-melt undesirable crystal formations.

Chocolate is very sensitive to temperature and humidity. Ideal storage temperatures are between 15 and 17 °C (59 and 63 °F), with a relative humidity of less than 50%. If refrigerated or frozen without containment, chocolate can absorb enough moisture to cause a whitish discoloration, the result of fat or sugar crystals rising to the surface. Various types of "blooming" effects can occur if chocolate is stored or served improperly.

Chocolate bloom is caused by storage temperature fluctuating or exceeding 24 °C (75 °F), while sugar bloom is caused by temperature below 15 °C (59 °F) or excess humidity. To distinguish between different types of bloom, one can rub the surface of the chocolate lightly, and if the bloom disappears, it is fat bloom. Moving chocolate between temperature extremes, can result in an oily texture. Although visually unappealing, chocolate suffering from bloom is safe for consumption and taste unaffected. Bloom can be reversed by retempering the chocolate or using it for any use that requires melting the chocolate.

Chocolate is generally stored away from other foods, as it can absorb different aromas. Ideally, chocolates are packed or wrapped, and placed in proper storage with the correct humidity and temperature. Additionally, chocolate is frequently stored in a dark place or protected from light by wrapping paper. The glossy shine, snap, aroma, texture, and taste of the chocolate can show the quality and if it was stored well.

A 100-gram serving of milk chocolate supplies 540 calories. It is 59% carbohydrates (52% as sugar and 3% as dietary fiber), 30% fat and 8% protein (table). Approximately 65% of the fat in milk chocolate is saturated, mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid, while the predominant unsaturated fat is oleic acid (table).

100-grams of milk chocolate is an excellent source (over 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of riboflavin, vitamin B12 and the dietary minerals, manganese, phosphorus and zinc. Chocolate is a good source (10–19% DV) of calcium, magnesium and iron.

Chocolate may be a factor for heartburn in some people because one of its constituents, theobromine, may affect the esophageal sphincter muscle in a way that permits stomach acids to enter the esophagus. Theobromine poisoning is an overdosage reaction to the bitter alkaloid, which happens more frequently in domestic animals than humans. However, daily intake of 50–100 g cocoa (0.8–1.5 g theobromine) by humans has been associated with sweating, trembling and severe headache. Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects in humans, but the presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals, including dogs and cats.

According to a 2005 study, the average lead concentration of cocoa beans is ≤ 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. However, during cultivation and production, chocolate may absorb lead from the environment (such as in atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria). Reports from 2014 indicate that "chocolate might be a significant source" of lead ingestion for children if consumption is high (with dark chocolate containing higher amounts), and "one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit."

Chocolate and cocoa contain moderate to high amounts of oxalate, which may increase the risk of kidney stones.

A few studies have documented allergic reactions from chocolate in children. Other research has shown that dark chocolate can aggravate acne in men who are prone to it. Research has also shown that consuming dark chocolate does not substantially affect blood pressure. Chocolate and cocoa are under preliminary research to determine if consumption affects the risk of certain cardiovascular diseases or cognitive abilities.

One tablespoonful (5 grams) of dry unsweetened cocoa powder has 12.1 mg of caffeine and a 25-g single serving of dark chocolate has 22.4 mg of caffeine. Although a single 7 oz. serving of coffee may contain 80–175 mg, studies have shown psychoactive effects in caffeine doses as low as 9 mg, and a dose as low as 12.5 mg was shown to have effects on cognitive performance.

Excessive consumption of large quantities of any energy-rich food, such as chocolate, without a corresponding increase in activity to expend the associated calories, can cause weight gain and possibly lead to obesity. Raw chocolate is high in cocoa butter, a fat which is removed during chocolate refining and then added back in varying proportions during the manufacturing process. Manufacturers may add other fats, sugars, and milk, all of which increase the caloric content of chocolate.

In comparison to most foods, cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants. Cocoa solids are a source of flavonoids and alkaloids, such as theobromine, phenethylamine, and caffeine.

Some manufacturers provide the percentage of chocolate in a finished chocolate confection as a label quoting percentage of "cocoa" or "cacao". This refers to the combined percentage of both cocoa solids and cocoa butter in the bar, not just the percentage of cocoa solids. The Belgian AMBAO certification mark indicates that no non-cocoa vegetable fats have been used in making the chocolate. A long-standing dispute between Britain on the one hand and Belgium and France over British use of vegetable fats in chocolate ended in 2000 with the adoption of new standards which permitted the use of up to five percent vegetable fats in clearly labelled products. This British style of chocolate has sometimes been pejoratively referred to as "vegelate".

Chocolates that are organic or fair trade certified carry labels accordingly.

In the United States, some large chocolate manufacturers lobbied the federal government to permit confections containing cheaper hydrogenated vegetable oil in place of cocoa butter to be sold as "chocolate". In June 2007, in response to consumer concern about the proposal, the FDA reiterated "Cacao fat, as one of the signature characteristics of the product, will remain a principal component of standardized chocolate."

Chocolate, prevalent throughout the world, is a steadily growing, US$50 billion-a-year worldwide business. Europe accounts for 45% of the world's chocolate revenue, and the US spent $20 billion in 2013. Big Chocolate is the grouping of major international chocolate companies in Europe and the U.S. U.S. companies Mars and Hershey's alone generated $13 billion a year in chocolate sales and account for two-thirds of U.S. production in 2004. Despite the expanding reach of the chocolate industry internationally, cocoa farmers and labourers in the Ivory Coast are unaware of the uses of the beans; the high cost of chocolate products in the Ivory Coast make it inaccessible to the majority of the population, who do not know what it tastes like.

Chocolate manufacturers produce a range of products from chocolate bars to fudge. Large manufacturers of chocolate products include Cadbury (the world's largest confectionery manufacturer), Ferrero, Guylian, The Hershey Company, Lindt & Sprüngli, Mars, Incorporated, Milka, Neuhaus and Suchard.

Guylian is best known for its chocolate sea shells; Cadbury for its Dairy Milk and Creme Egg. The Hershey Company, the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America, produces the Hershey Bar and Hershey's Kisses. Mars Incorporated, a large privately owned U.S. corporation, produces Mars Bar, Milky Way, M&M's, Twix, and Snickers. Lindt is known for its truffle balls and gold foil-wrapped Easter bunnies.

Food conglomerates Nestlé SA and Kraft Foods both have chocolate brands. Nestlé acquired Rowntree's in 1988 and now markets chocolates under their brand, including Smarties (a chocolate candy) and Kit Kat (a chocolate bar); Kraft Foods through its 1990 acquisition of Jacobs Suchard, now owns Milka and Suchard. In February 2010, Kraft also acquired British-based Cadbury; Fry's, Trebor Basset and the fair trade brand Green & Black's also belongs to the group.

The widespread use of children in cocoa production is controversial, not only for the concerns about child labor and exploitation, but also because up to 12,000 of the 200,000 children working in Côte d'Ivoire, the world's biggest producer of cocoa, may be victims of trafficking or slavery. Most attention on this subject has focused on West Africa, which collectively supplies 69 percent of the world's cocoa, and Côte d'Ivoire in particular, which supplies 35 percent of the world's cocoa. Thirty percent of children under age 15 in sub-Saharan Africa are child laborers, mostly in agricultural activities including cocoa farming. Major chocolate producers, such as Nestlé, buy cocoa at commodities exchanges where Ivorian cocoa is mixed with other cocoa.

In 2009, Salvation Army International Development (SAID) UK stated that 12,000 children have been trafficked on cocoa farms in the Ivory Coast of Africa, where half of the world's chocolate is made. SAID UK states that it is these child slaves who are likely to be working in "harsh and abusive" conditions for the production of chocolate, and an increasing number of health-food and anti-slavery organisations are highlighting and campaigning against the use of trafficking in the chocolate industry.

As of 2017, approximately 2.1 million children in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire were involved in farming cocoa, carrying heavy loads, clearing forests, and being exposed to pesticides. According to Sona Ebai, the former secretary-general of the Alliance of Cocoa Producing Countries: "I think child labor cannot be just the responsibility of industry to solve. I think it's the proverbial all-hands-on-deck: government, civil society, the private sector. And there, you need leadership." Reported in 2018, a 3-year pilot program – conducted by Nestlé with 26,000 farmers mostly located in Côte d'Ivoire – observed a 51% decrease in the number of children doing hazardous jobs in cocoa farming. The US Department of Labor formed the Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group as a public-private partnership with the governments of Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire to address child labor practices in the cocoa industry. The International Cocoa Initiative involving major cocoa manufacturers established the Child Labor Monitoring and Remediation System intended to monitor thousands of farms in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire for child labor conditions, but the program reached less than 20% of the child laborers. Despite these efforts, goals to reduce child labor in West Africa by 70% before 2020 are frustrated by persistent poverty, absence of schools, expansion of cocoa farmland, and increased demand for cocoa.

In April 2018, the Cocoa Barometer report stated: "Not a single company or government is anywhere near reaching the sector-wide objective of the elimination of child labor, and not even near their commitments of a 70% reduction of child labor by 2020".

In the 2000s, some chocolate producers began to engage in fair trade initiatives, to address concerns about the marginalization of cocoa laborers in developing countries. Traditionally, Africa and other developing countries received low prices for their exported commodities such as cocoa, which caused poverty to abound. Fairtrade seeks to establish a system of direct trade from developing countries to counteract this unfair system. One solution for fair labor practices is for farmers to become part of an Agricultural cooperative. Cooperatives pay farmers a fair price for their cocoa so farmers have enough money for food, clothes, and school fees. One of the main tenets of fair trade is that farmers receive a fair price, but this does not mean that the larger amount of money paid for fair trade cocoa goes directly to the farmers. The effectiveness of fair trade has been questioned. In a 2014 article, The Economist stated that workers on fair trade farms have a lower standard of living than on similar farms outside the fair trade system.

Chocolate is sold in chocolate bars, which come in dark chocolate, milk chocolate and white chocolate varieties. Some bars that are mostly chocolate have other ingredients blended into the chocolate, such as nuts, raisins, or crisped rice. Chocolate is used as an ingredient in a huge variety of bars, which typically contain various confectionary ingredients (e.g., nougat, wafers, caramel, nuts, etc.) which are coated in chocolate.

Chocolate is used as a flavouring product in many desserts, such as chocolate cakes, chocolate brownies, chocolate mousse and chocolate chip cookies. Numerous types of candy and snacks contain chocolate, either as a filling (e.g., M&M's) or as a coating (e.g., chocolate-coated raisins or chocolate-coated peanuts).

Some non-alcoholic beverages contain chocolate, such as chocolate milk, hot chocolate and chocolate milkshakes. Some alcoholic liqueurs are flavoured with chocolate, such as chocolate liqueur and creme de cacao. Chocolate is a popular flavour of ice cream and pudding, and chocolate sauce is a commonly added as a topping on ice cream sundaes. The caffè mocha is an espresso beverage containing chocolate.

The Best Chewy Chocolate Chip Cookies
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it’s crazy how everyone’s allergies are so different. i’m allergic to cats, my friend is allergic to chocolate, cuo…
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Valentine’s Day is on the way! The “Chocolate heart” and “Heart-shaped bouquet” items can be ordered in Nook Shoppi…
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El chocolate es originario de México. Poco se sabe sobre la producción del cacaotal en la Riviera Nayarit. Aquí te…
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RT @PPTeamLesslie: @PPTeamKaren Mejor chocolate
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chocolate can help lift up ur mood
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Regular Iced Tea Blue Raspberry, Marshmallow Teas: Snow White, Chocolate Chai, Faux Cocoa Bubbles: Mango Jellies, L…
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Matcha green tea ice cream, macaron, cake, chocolate and donut 🍩
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@pomme16102977 えー羨ましい🤤
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RT @ThornthanL: ของหายหรือขโมยขึ้นบ้าน ถ้าไม่ใช่คนดังมีชื่อเสียง ตร.แม่งไม่เคยจริงจังช่วยเหลือหรอก จากปสก.หลังตร.มาเก็บหลักฐาน ก่อนกลับยังช…
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What are you getting your bb? Sweets for My Sweet: 8 local chocolate treats your valentine will love:
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if u dont have a valentine, im ur valentine. now shutup and I'll feed u chocolate
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@jakeyyoonie chocolate tetap dihati SHINING MEGA ARTISTS ENHYPEN #ENHYPENon30thSMA @ENHYPEN @ENHYPEN_members
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Chocolatey and delicious, these brownies are a classic with a twist thanks to the addition of rose water and pistac…
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RT @ekaiinn: el kinder bueno de chocolate blanco es mejor que el normal y no hay mas
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1906,@1906NewHighs, works diligently on creating new flavor sensations in the Cannabis edibles industry. Given th…
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RT @jackietoloza: Que caro les salió ese billete de $50.000 y el tamal con chocolate.
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RT @LilSpoiledlife: Guess I’ll have to lick chocolate off my OWN damn titties for Valentine’s Day 😂😂
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While you might be planning to make this an efficient and prod... More for Aries
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🍫 ☕ Today is #NationalHotChocolateDay! ➡️ You can support us by tweeting us a photo of you enjoying a hot chocolate…
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RT @Pikachu_ThePika: @SatyamK94600324 @RudraDatta5 @Shraddha_4SSR Arey sattu 5th September to chala gaya... Bakk. chocolate la chal Truth…
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Tasty's 5 Classic Chocolate Desserts
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It's finally National Hot Chocolate Day! Share a pic of you cozied up with some hot cocoa using…
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RT @guererrooo: mint chocolate is good 😐
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Me compré como 500 pesos de chocolate y los voy a comer sólo porque nadie me quiere xd
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RT @angelesmaldoo: Posta a veces es necesario estos días para tirarte a mirar pelis con un cafecito y un chocolate 🙌🏼
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assistindo chocolate com pimenta
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RT @thekinkywave: Fat chocolate booty getting fucked from the back. watch more content:
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@Heidi_RF9 Yeah I lost my senses of taste but not my sense of smell and it took 4 months before it started coming b…
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Mas a vontade de comer besteira diminuiu MUITO com o diu. Quando eu tomava Ac eu tinha muita vontade de comer choco…
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@rahhaafffff Hota chocolate
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RT @28S0URCLOUDS: which chocolate is better
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MILK CHOCOLATE
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@prettyvis1tors chocolate milk
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@tbhcasino strawberry and chocolate :))))
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RT @yvidalaqui2: Buenos Días Feliz Sábado #HappySaturday #SaturdayVibes #BuenaVibra #chocolate #Chocoholic
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uma geração que grudou chiclete atras da orelha depois de assistir willy wonkar e a fantastica fsbrica de chocolate
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I Wanna Suck On @ThegirlJT 🐈 Her Shit Look Like It Taste Like Chocolate Syrup 😋
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@Laflecosh Te iba a pedir un chocolate, hermosa dama.
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RT @sheinahirtorres: Quiero alfajor, chocolate no seeeee algo dulce🤦🏻‍♀️
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Kim Woo Seok plays chess with chocolate in charming 2nd MV teaser for 'Sugar'
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See how New Yorkers endured snowstorms before Gore-Tex, Doppler radar, snow blowers and even before instant hot cho…
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RT @GOLCHA_BOMIN: Etude IG Story Update 💖 "Do you like chocolate? Bomin likes Etude x Hershey Kisses"
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@QuirkyJERK Chocolate is my kryptonite for weight loss. Chicken wings are my kryptonite for weight loss AND my pescatarian lifestyle
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RT @rachkathh: POV: you stole Hershey’s kisses from your parents chocolate stash but once you get to your room the chocolates float whereve…
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@_chocolate_dqx 出したほうが本人は喜ぶと思うので🤤
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*Subscribe & Save Deal* 10% Off + additional 15% Twix 100 Calories Caramel Chocolate Cookie Bar Candy 0.71-Ounce…
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@sydokiller Welp guess i gotta "eat" the previous chocolate to bet the new one
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when you want Chocolate but you ran out of it<<<<
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@ssefnum she ca nondat siomay kfc pizza hut pinned gif single chocolate neu happ korea ga
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Roses? Chocolate? A homemade gift? Answer some questions, and get started on a plan!
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RT @_Deashay: I rather be hard to deal w/ than easy to play w/
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RT @aod63389: Chocolate trainers, anyone? #石化
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わぁ。。。 バラの花びらのチョコなんてあるのね♪ こんなの、もらってみたいなぁ♪
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RT @acarolwilson: Hola! Hace un tiempo que mi mamá cumplió su sueño de poner una cafetería✨ Se llama Rose Café y estamos en Los Robles. Par…
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Roses? Chocolate? A homemade gift? Answer some questions, and get started on a plan!
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RT @_for_IU: 정말이지 이날 무엇을 보고있었길래 저리 다양한 자세로 손을 모으고 긴장했는지 너무 궁금해서 미치겟음
3
Have just made my first ever batch of Chocolate Mousse! It’s chilling in the fridge. Thanks Delia Smith for the rec…
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No debí comer ese chocolate. 😴
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The first chocolate bar was made in 1847 Before that, chocolate was only a drink
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CHOCOLATE LIKE SOME D’USSÉ.
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You're as sweet as chocolate chip cookies 🍪
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@ParikPatelCFA 2x per week run+weights, mobility, abs 2x per week run+Pilates (mobility and flexibility) 1x per wee…
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dark chocolate sea salted caramel #ChobaniCoffeeCreamer
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@AndreaRussett I had a mental breakdown when the security man at the airport told me I couldn’t bring the chocolate…
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One of my co-workers just brought me hot chocolate on his day off 🥺🥺🥺
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Hot chocolate, Pizza, tray of brownies, but no shorty smh
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@ayanda_yandiey_ Very difficult question. It depends on the heart but I for one, have no energy to repeat door open…
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Niall please can you give your recipe of your banana bread? I need it to make a banana bread with the children for…
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RT @siirsokakta: Bir montla beş kış geçirilebilir, ayakkabının kırmızı rengi olmasa da olur. İkeadan alınmamış bir kitaplık da iş görür, ye…
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dios esto me hizo acordar q para mis kinse NO COMI UNA MIERDA !! de pedo me termine el postre y la mesa dulce solo…
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RT @Giuli_Oliveri_: Vendo mi alma por un chocolate Milka oreo
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@GoodToBeBizzy Russell Stover makes all kinds of low sugar chocolate yummies. Walmart sells it on the candy aisle in grocery.
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RT @Kormla4: 14th February wo b'adi chocolate anaa wo b'adi banku? 😂
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i like winter bc snow and i like to stay inside and warm and drink hot chocolate. also christmas…
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RT @JuanpaQuijanof: ¡Banda de CDMX! Mi madre está haciendo estos corazones de chocolate rellenos de mazapán que ¡¡NO TIENEN MADRE!! 💖 ¿Me…
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Saqué un chocolate para comer, vinieron mi prima y mi hermana a pedirme, quedé sin chocolate. Al rato saqué mis tod…
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@FbbTml Here you go Matt Recipe Dk Chocolate Coconut cookies 1 cup Dk chocolate chips 2 tablespoons milk Combine…
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vontade de comer uma coisa salgada depois de ter entupido o cu de chocolate
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Why the hell is MilkyBar chocolate milk not a thing👀🙃
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Dark Chocolate is Excellent for Health! -Improves insulin sensitivity -Decreases hunger & appetite -Enhances mood…
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Dairy Milk has been a firm favourite for generations, so it's fantastic to see this Great British brand making more…
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I tried to make a microwave chocolate lava cake instead i made a chocolate VOLCANO!!! Still tastes good😋
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Chocolate Regina, located at 2130-A Robinson Street, sells chocolate made by the best chocolatiers in Canada and th…
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Name a more iconic duo than chai and chocolate digestive biscuits
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@tobioshoto_ Chocolate ao leite e marshmallow
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RT @chofermorboso: ¿Alguien quiere una barra de chocolate? 🔥😈 viene relleno de leche! #RT ¿ya vieron como me la como?👅🤤 👉🏽
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Esse bolo de cenoura com cobertura de chocolate ta de vdd
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RT @chyadosensei: The official Top 3 Taiyaki is as follows: Bacon Egg with mayo Custard Chocolate crunch. Everyone else is wrong.
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1 like vou fazer bolo de cenoura com cobertura de chocolate
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RT @EmeraldZoo: Lunch and dessert is served. The kisses go perfect with the strawberry dabs! Tastes just like a chocolate covered 🍒.
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@meeeranda_ Can I have 12 but only drizzled with chocolate?! Pete only likes half chocolate lol DM me your venmo & when I can pick up🥰
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RT @BorisJohnson: Dairy Milk has been a firm favourite for generations, so it's fantastic to see this Great British brand making more choco…
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Stress eating chocolate to get me through it 😎🤙
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If I was good my mom let me lick the beaters after making chocolate cake. If I was really good, she turned the p…
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Now playing: Chocolate High by India.Arie Feat Musiq Soulchild Say ~ Alexa, enable Hippie Soul Cafe ~ to listen now
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RT @AdriFiigueroa: Chocolate, bf and @GeoLatinas are getting me through this week. Many family members sick with covid right now😔😔. Please…
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@CarlosGomezPy Chocolate por la noticia
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atsumu nods, steps closer to tooru, nose to nose. "you're an alpha," atsumu says, scent changing once again, a lit…
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Similar to Miss Havisham in “Great Expectations,” the owner of the master bedroom is still wearing his unused inaug…
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RT @emmy_dann: Is it only chocolate and biscuits Nigerians can pack in valentine boxes ?
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RT @nandinipatell: i love valentine’s day aesthetic .. like the pink.. the red... the hearts.. the roses.. chocolate.. love letters.. all o…
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RT @ariestrxsh: girls don’t want chocolate for vday they want the valentine nike af1’s
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@giselasauce1986 Chocolate por la noticia,!
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RT @ariestrxsh: girls don’t want chocolate for vday they want the valentine nike af1’s
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RT @ariestrxsh: girls don’t want chocolate for vday they want the valentine nike af1’s
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RT @brgsjks: RT for chocolate cake Like for pavlova ig: armaneekitchen
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Mint chocolate chip tastes like what dry ice looks like
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If I go to HEB on the 14th and they sold outta chocolate covered strawberries, imma be so pissed, cause like you ha…
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RT @CauldronCandles: Our scented candles for #ValentinesDay include: Love Potion (aphrodisiac blend); Sweet Obsession (dark chocolate); Str…
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Can I please get a custard filled donut and an everything bagel with extra cream cheese and a peanut butter chocola…
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RT @ariestrxsh: girls don’t want chocolate for vday they want the valentine nike af1’s
3829
RT @ariestrxsh: girls don’t want chocolate for vday they want the valentine nike af1’s
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RT @AceTeaLondon: Liven up your #weekend as Ace Tea are giving YOU the chance to #win these delicious Brazil Nut & White Chocolate Tea Dunk…
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RT @ariestrxsh: girls don’t want chocolate for vday they want the valentine nike af1’s
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Kingsbite chocolate which never got to me cos it got delivered to the wrong person
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@xanaardid Buah, amb chocolate calentet ufff
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It's Friday night and it's starting to get wild in the Senate: Sen. Romney returned from the cloakroom with a glass…
369
I, uh... I got you a gift... Please look it over before... Uh, I mean... Please enjoy! Inside is some chocolate w…
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Here, these chocolate cookies are for you. I mixed the ingredients myself. Thank you for spending this special day…
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RT @GlynJon35865423: I'm retweeting this a little late, but not too late, as I'm sure you'll be wanting chocolate through the rest of the y…
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更新する度に順位下がっててワロタ
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RT @_Mareeb: #اسلام_شرم_و_حیا_کا_پیکر While many of those in the West are celebrating Valentine’s Day with the exchange of roses, chocola…
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RT @hollywoong1015: White chocolate 🍫😋
25
chocolate boxとかゆー曲めちゃよいじゃん………!!!
0
RT @kazuki_hamachi: 【かづあす歌コラボ第2弾】 🌈あすちぃ(@AsukA_nyanko_)と歌った☀ MIXはスタワンの使い手 Askeyニキ(@Askey_eternal)にお頼み申した! あすちぃのかわいい歌声と Askeyニキの気持ちいいMIXきい…
3
Na my sister dem sent chocolate na me dey chop nothing sweet pass division of chocolate eater 😁😁😁
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RT @isabelzawtun: Retweet if you’d be willing to spend a couple more bucks for chocolate if that meant not using child slaves (I know this…
5216
RT @annargpl: fine i’ll buy myself chocolate covered strawberries
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RT @am272534755: Sweet dreams like chocolate... #絵描きさんと繋がりたい #バレンタイン2021
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@oxbollocks A lot of chocolate 😋
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RT @_glossyeyed_: don't worry everyone, sungjin is the chocolate 🍫
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RT @izuketsu_deen: เมื่อกี้รินะไปซื้อของมา แล้วเห็นผู้ชายอยู่ข้างหน้าขายChocolate ซื้อเพื่อผู้หญิงใช่มั้ยคะ?😲 น่ารักมากเลยค่ะ😍💓💓 ขอให้พี่เข…
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@ChocolateMastr Chocolate Maker! I made good gains in $crow. THANK YOU! Can you please look at $EGG . Maybe it's a…
0
When she was little, Harunyan's father always received a lot of chocolate on Valentine's Day from his company colle…
0
RT @compassnotes: [210214] 7:53PM KST 🐷🐰 I don't really like chocolate ㅋㅋ But I like chocolate ice cream ㅎㅎ (If i have) mint choco I wil…
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RT @isabelzawtun: Retweet if you’d be willing to spend a couple more bucks for chocolate if that meant not using child slaves (I know this…
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french vanilla rocky road chocolate peanut butter cookie dough scoop there it is
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RT @DemonBQueen: Hoy es un día muuy de chocolates 7w7 Me preguntó que color de chocolate les gusta mas? 7w7🔥
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RT @dianalmoraleso: que tiempos aquellos cuando hacíamos que mamá comprara chocolate en zazueta para hacer las paletas y ahí estábamos una…
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This is what it's supposed to look like. I derped on the instructions and microwaved the melting chocolate at full…
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@AlHendiify Ah, the chocolate fire guard.
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RT @hwavly: if you retweet this seonghwa will appear and give you some chocolate like this ♡ i vote #ATEEZ for #StanWorld #에이티즈 @ATEEZoffi…
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RT @syouka010:
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need a big glass of chocolate milk rn
0
RT @pikaole: 🍫Chocolate Reptiles🦎
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RT @chercywong: I get chocolate is a big thing for Valentine’s Day but pls make an effort to buy from ethical chocolate producers
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RT @DDf25374244: Chocolate vanilla doggystyle pleasures with a short hair ebony flower on the sofa will become your eternal source of joy a…
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RT @BingleBingle7: Chocolate or Me...? 😋
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RT @Nurintashaa: If you see this cookies looks quite dark in the picture, yet it is. Because it was coated with premium dark chocolate. Sh…
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RT @cut3things_: I nak recommend nims punya rainbow mini crunch ni . I suka sebab dia pakai white chocolate , macam rugi kalau u tak try se…
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RT @nyam_DH: 1402221 BAE173 VLIVE 초콜릿처럼 사랑했다 staff gave them chocolate pens (like for decorations) with different colors and muzin is so a…
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RT @YukkiRikka: Los hare elegir cariños~💜💖💜 Quieren el cocholate de mi boca o el chocolate que tengo guardado en mi coño? fufu~💜🔥💜🔥💜 #Hen…
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RT @LizTenn: @MollyJongFast Massive wall was hit today for me. Complete meltdown with tears. My husband and I got in the car and drove to t…
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RT @hatakestark: Iruka: acho q o Narutinho ta pronto pra comer o primeiro chocolate. Kakashi: ué, mas ele já comeu chocolate diversas veze…
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Gülay Yıldırım
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This no-bake espresso chocolate cheesecake is the perfect afternoon pick-me-up.
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Looking for Christmas food gift ideas? Check out these recipes for Chocolate Bark Candy from Midwest Living. 8 delicious varieties that would make perfect Xmas gifts. diy gifts | xmas | xmas ideas | desserts
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Easy Chocolate Orange Truffles: Dark chocolate and orange oil combine in these rich decadent truffles. With only four ingredients, you won’t believe how easy they are to make! #chocolate #orange #truffles #candy #dessert #recipes
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These delicious Chocolate Truffles are the definition of EASY homemade candy, with only 4 ingredients and so simple that anyone can help make them!
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Get Cherry, Chocolate and Pecan Scones with Strawberry Jam Recipe from Food Network
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Elbow Chocolates Tour | gimmesomeoven.com
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The BEST homemade chocolate bar! Tastes just like Nestle Crunch bar and you can top with all your favourite candy. No bake!
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6 Christmas Chocolate Bark Recipes
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These Caramallows have a soft, buttery caramel layer, topped with fluffy homemade marshmallows and are all dipped in a sweet chocolate coating. Save a trip to the candy store and make these at home! @dixiecrystals
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This Death By Chocolate Poke Cake is for the serious chocolate lover! A chocolate cake that has been poked, filled, and covered with so much chocolate ... Can you handle it?! #pokecake #chocolate #potluck #dessert
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Get Cherry, Chocolate and Pecan Scones with Strawberry Jam Recipe from Food Network
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It's always "cookie time" when you can make these copycat cookies at home. A slightly crispy thin mint-flavored cookie is coated in chocolate to create the flavor pairing you love. #mintchocolatecookies #chocolatedippedcookies #cookierecipe #mintthincookies #bhg
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Filled with creamy ganache, these heart-shaped chocolates are a beautiful treat.
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This Brownie Milkshake is a super decadent treat every chocolate lover should taste at least once! Loaded with brownie chunks and decorated with ganache, this milkshake is packed with delicious chocolate flavour.
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chocolat en tablettes
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The BEST homemade chocolate bar! Tastes just like Nestle Crunch bar and you can top with all your favourite candy. No bake!
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Famous Brick Street Chocolate Cake. Everything you dream of in a rich, dense chocolate cake. Secret ingredients. And a to-die-for ganache frosting. #dessertrecipes
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5-Ingredient No-Bake Chocolate Covered Brownies - UK Health Blog - Nadia's Healthy Kitchen
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Double Chocolate Brownies
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These homemade chocolate bars are the perfect homemade valentine's day gift! Complete with a variety of options, funny puns, and homemade wrappings, these are the cutest DIY chocolate bars for someone you love! #homemadechocolatebars #DIYvalentinesdaygifts #valentinesday #butternutbakery
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chocolate Pinterest Ideas
  • chocolate chip cookies
  • chocolate cake
  • chocolate brown hair
  • chocolate pie
  • chocolate crinkle cookies
  • chocolate desserts
  • chocolate chip banana bread
Feb 12, 2021 00:28
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Watercolor cookies might be my new favorite! ...#cookies #chocolate #cake #cookiesofinstagram #food #baking #sugarcookies #homemade #dessert #foodporn #yummy #cupcakes #decoratedcookies #royalicing #instafood #cookie #customcookies #cakes #foodie #bakery #delicious #love #royalicingcookies #cookiedecorating #brownies #sweets #kuekering #cookieart #sweet #bhfyp
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#foodie #customcookies #cake #foodporn #instafood
Jan 31, 2021 11:59
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Günaydıııın ❤️ Haftasonunu sağlıklı geçirmek isteyenlere Harika bir atıştırmalık , wasadan sağlıklı gofret yaptım 🍫😍 Tarifi @melynutty de gördüm ben ek olarak üstüne ceviz ve Hindistan cevizi tozu ekledim 💕 #wasa #wasaturkiye #gofret #çikolata #chocolate #fıstıkezmesi #hindistanceviziyağı #hinditancevizi #kesfet #instagram #deprem #korona #covid_19 #asi #hayat #yaşam #sağlıklıbeslenme #sağlık #fitness #fit #goodmorning #günaydın #haftasonu #haftasonukeyfi #weekend #instagram #kesfet #goodnight #iyigeceler🌙 #iyiaksamlar
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#yaşam #asi #weekend #sağlıklıbeslenme #haftasonu
Jan 31, 2021 11:59
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#チョコレート #chocolate #pierreherme #ピエールエルメ #valentine #bonbonchocolat Valentine2❤️
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#valentine #chocolate #bonbonchocolat #pierreherme
Jan 31, 2021 11:59
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SALTED CARAMEL SAUCE; I have a weakness for caramel sauce 🤤. This one is AWESOME! You can use it for many things, in your cake, brownies or muffins, in cheesecakes, or in some hot drinks. I made a salted caramel latte. Just add 2 tsp of the caramel sauce in a cup of warm milk and add 1 tsp of espresso powder, nescafe or any coffee you like. Super satisfying 😍! ✨ Check the details in my highlights ✨ 🔲 INGREDIENTS: ▪️1/4 cup water ▪️1 cup light brown sugar ▪️1/2 tsp vanilla extract ▪️1/2 cup whipping cream ▪️30 g unsalted butter (2 tbsp) ▪️Pinch of sea salt 🔲 METHOD: ▪️Put a non stick pan over high heat and add the water. ▪️Add the sugar and bring it to boil. Cook for a few mins until all the sugar has melted and the mixture is turning golden brown, do not stir just gently swirl the pan. ▪️Once bubbles are forming all over the surface, turn on low heat and add the whipping cream and vanilla extract. Mix with a wooden spoon until combined. ▪️Add the butter and whisk until it’s melted then turn off the heat. ▪️Add a pinch of sea salt and mix. ▪️Leave it to cool then transfer to a glass jar and store in the fridge. It will thicken after a few hours in the fridge. #saltedcaramel #chocolate #caramel #dessert #cake #homemade #cheesecake #foodie #food #yummy #baking #coffee #delicious #brownies #desserts #icecream #sweet #cupcakes #sweets #sweettooth #cookies #saltedcaramelsauce #delicitabyrita
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#icecream #coffee #yummy #cupcakes #delicious
Jan 31, 2021 11:59
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Hello everyone 😊 Work has been crazy and when I have a bit time, I try to use it to rest and take care of me. So with all that, motivation for baking hasn’t been very high... I also love baking to share it with people which is not really possible at the moment. And I don’t know... the motivation was just not there. However, I made some chocolate tartelettes last week and gave 2 to my neighbours and I quote “it made their day”. I was so happy I could brighten someone’s day with little homemade treats 😊❤️ so I will probably start to bake again and get to know all my neighbours 😆😋 whenever I do manage to find time and I’m not too tired from work. However I think I will just bake to bake and not necessarily post the recipes on the blog. These little tarts shells are still not perfect... I’m getting frustrated, I love the technic but can’t seem to ever make one as perfect as the ones I see on Instagram... any tips? #koocetcroque #tartshell #chocolatelover #chocolate #homemade #instabaker #tartsofinstagram #tartelettes #bakestagram #fonddetarte #chocolat
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#bakestagram #chocolatelover #tartshell #tartsofinstagram #koocetcroque
Jan 31, 2021 11:59
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Our sweet tooth recommendation for Sunday is our delightful Chocolate Cake because let's just accept it, it's always difficult to say no to Chocolate. Available for Online orders and Takeaway.⁠ ⁠ Our Delivery and Takeaway Menu selections: ⁠ Delivery Menu: https://bit.ly/NidaayaDeliveryMenu⁠ Daily Meals Special: https://bit.ly/mealspecial⁠ Our healthy selections: bit.ly/riqqafb ⁠ Call or WhatsApp +974 3348 5456 for more inquiries on Delivery and Takeaway⁠. We are available on Talabat, Snoonu, Fingertips, Rafeeq, Wishbox and our healthy selections are available on Akly. ⁠ ⁠ #crowneplazadohawb #chocolatecake #chocolate # cakes #cakestagram #cakesofinstagram
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#chocolate #crowneplazadohawb #cakesofinstagram #chocolatecake
Jan 31, 2021 11:59
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ᴄʜᴏᴄᴏʟᴀᴛᴇ ᴛʀᴜꜰꜰʟᴇꜱ A chocolate ganache centre coated in cocoa powder. 25 pcs - RM 35 #homemade #chocolate #chocolatetruffles ##malaysiahomemade #malaysiahomebaker #chocolatelover #chocolateganache
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#chocolate #homemade #malaysiahomebaker #chocolateganache ##malaysiahomemade
Jan 31, 2021 11:59
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Kubánský dort 😉🍌🍫 #homadcake #chocolate #banana #myhobby #entertainment #sveetjob
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#sveetjob #myhobby #banana #entertainment #chocolate
Jan 31, 2021 11:59
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Una dolce colazione su tagliere: Crêpes al miele con mirtilli e banana ❤️ Buongiorno e buona domenica a tutti! ✨ . . . #cibo #zucchero #ciboitaliano #cibobuono #soffice #chetelodicoafare #golosità #zuccheroavelo #cibosanoegustoso #torta #cibolo #crepes #mirtilli #cibochepassione #banana #crêpes #cibovero #cibobuone #ciboperlamente #foodchocolate #cioccolato #cibofattoincasa #cibogenuino #cibonaturale #chocolate #wow #ciboleggero #cibolocale #cibochefasognare
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#soffice #cibolo #zucchero #banana #cioccolato
Jan 31, 2021 11:59
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#recipes #chocoholic #chocolate #darkchocolate #chocolateoverload #cookiestagram #chocolateheaven #sweetooth #chocolateganache #chocolatemousse #cookies #instachocolate #chocolove #instacookies #chocolatechip #chocolatebuttercream #chocolatecookie #chocolatechipscookies #chocolateicecream #chocolateaddict #foodvideo #chocolatelover #delicious #cakeoftheday #chocolatefoodiestyle
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#cookiestagram #chocolatemousse #sweetooth #cookies #darkchocolate